Forging is the process of forming and shaping metals through the use of hammering, rolling or pressing. The process usually begins with starting stock, a cast ingot or a cogged billet which has already been forged from a cast ingot; this will be heated to its plastic deformation temperature, then upset or kneaded between dies to the shape or size required. It has been a staple metal fabrication technique since the time of ancient Mesopotamians.

Since its origins in the Fertile Crescent, forging has experienced significant changes resulting nowadays in a faster and more efficient process. This is mainly because forging is most commonly performed with the use of forging presses or hammering tools that can be powered by electricity, compressed air or hydraulics.

The pounding action of forging deforms and shapes the metal, these result in an unbroken grain flow, this causes the metal to retain its strength.  Effects of this unique grain flow include the elimination of defects and inclusions and porosity in the product. Another advantage of forging is it is a relatively low cost especially with moderate and long runs. There are several forging processes available , including impression or closed die, cold forging, drop forging, forging, upset forging and open die forgings.

The two main types of forging are hot and cold: Hot forging requires the metal to be heated above its recrystallization temperature, the metal can be heated up to 2,300 degrees Fahrenheit. Hot forging’s benefit is the decrease in energy required to form the metal properly, excessive heat decreases yield strength and improves ductility. Products that have been hot forged also benefit from the elimination of chemical inconsistencies.

The other main type of forging is cold forging, many metals such as steel high in carbon are simply too strong for cold forging.  Cold forging comes at a cost because cold forging requires more powerful equipment. Cold forging typically refers to forging metal at room temperature.

Hot Forging
Hot Forging

Mezzanine Floor Costs

A mezzanine floor, while quite costly, is still cheaper than completely relocating a business. Mezzanine flooring can be used for additional storage, office space, production space and retail.

The standard cost for a mezzanine is around £75-£150 per square metre, the cost all depends on the weight the floor needs to support. Mezzanine floors can be up to 80% cheaper than completely moving premises.

The weight requirement of the mezzanine floor depends on how it will be used. Typically, office space uses mezzanine flooring rated for 350kg per square metre this is a lot lower when compared to production space. This requires a much higher rated mezzanine, usually around 960kg per square metre.

Depending on what is being stored, the storage ratings will change. Heavier machinery will require a higher load rating than lighter items.

Positioning of the mezzanine floor will also affect the cost due to the complexity of certain warehouse spaces.

Sometimes the columns of the mezzanine structure can be hidden in the walls of the space created below the mezzanine. An experienced designer will be able to create a floor which is fit for purpose and aesthetically pleasing.

On average an installation team will be able to fit around 100m2 of flooring per day. This gives a rough idea how long a mezzanine will take to construct so deadlines can be set. Fire rating will add onto the construction time.

Mezzanine flooring constructed for storage use doesn’t need to be fire safety rated, however if it is more than 50% of the building’s footprint then you may have to get it rated.

If the design of the mezzanine is simple then it can be taken with you to new premises, therefore saving costs in the future.

Mezzanine floors must conform to current building regulations. An inspection will take place once the floor has been completed, it will then be signed off and a certificate issued as proof. A fire officer will accompany the building inspector if the floor needs to be fire rated and inspected.

What are Glossmeters?

Glossmeters are used to measure the gloss of a surface and the measurement expressed as gloss units. A beam of light is projected at an angle onto a surface and then measured at an equal but opposite angle.

Depending on the type of surface being measured determines the angle used in the measuring process. Metal for example has a much higher rate of reflection which means it is less dependent on the angle of measurement.

Glossmeters are commonly used in the automotive industry to measure the gloss of paint finishes on vehicles.

There are three main measurement angles, these are 20°, 60°, and 85°. These angles cover most industrial coatings and materials. A gloss range decides what angle is going to be used for measurement.

A gloss unit is the standard of measurement used to determine the level of gloss on a surface. Highly polished black glass is used to determine 100GU which is the highest level of gloss. A perfectly matte surface is used to determine the 0GU measurement.

As well as gloss meters there are instruments to measure orange peel and haze. These are especially useful when comparing two surfaces which appear to have the same level of gloss but look very different. Orange peel especially can affect the visual appearance of a surface, but this can be measured by an instrument and a result displayed.

Overall there are professional instruments to measure all types of surfaces and any defects which may be on these.


Types of Industrial Magnets

In a world that’s changing day by day, new industrial magnets are having to be manufactured in order to keep up with demand the in the magnetic separation sector. Here we look at a few different types of industrial magnets commonly used today.

Permanent Overband Magnets

Permanent Overband Magnets are known for their effectiveness when removing tramp ferrous material. This continuous removal process ensures all unwanted material are removed from your product stream and this therefore leaves you with a ferrous free end product. Overband magnets main use is to protect and separate materials in applications in quarrying and recycling sectors. Unlike some industrial magnets, these magnets are self-cleaning therefore making no need for manual cleaning which minimises overall downtime.

industrial magnets

Permanent Suspension Magnets

Suspension magnets are designed to extract the occasional tramp iron that can occur in a product stream. These are normally fitted above streaming products that are on a conveyer belt or vibratory feeder. The way a suspension magnet works is by being placed at the right angle in order create maximum extraction. A bonus of a suspension magnet is that it can be fitted to a travelling trolley, so it can be moved away from your production stream if you desire this.

Stainless Steels Separators

Stainless steel separators are commonly used in primary magnetic separation to remove weak magnetic materials from the first product stream. Unlike other magnetic separators, the magnetic field on these are much stronger, therefore allowing them to not only pick up strongly magnetised ferrous materials but also materials with a weaker magnetic pull.

Bullet Separators

Bullet separators work by attracting ferrous materials to its surface and holding them securely until they are cleared by the manually cleaning the separator. The efficiency of the bullet separator allows iron particles in pipelines to be easily extracted and in turn clear of ferrous products. A bullet separators design allows minimum downtime when cleaning due to its easy cleaning method.